The Netherlands non-voluntary licenses for reprography
by James Packard Love This from the joint IFRRO WIPO Publication on Collective Management in Reprography, written by Tarja Koskinen-Olsson, April 2005. It describes non-voluntary licenses to make copies of works in the Netherlands.
Educational institutions, libraries, government agencies and other institutions working in the public interest have been able to issue photocopies for internal use to students, mutual lending between libraries and to civil servants respectively, provided that fair compensation is paid to the national RRO, Stichting REPRORECHT. The reproduction right fee is set by statute. An amendment of the Dutch Copyright Act of 1912, accepted in March 2002, extended the effect of the legal licence. After a legislative process lasting some years, it now covers the public sector and the business sector.It would be interesting (and important) to estimate the rates for such licenses that would be appropriate for developing countries.