Table 1
NCI Role in the Development of 37 Cancer Drugs

Drug Discovery
FDA New Drug
Vincristine Lilly 1963 Lilly none major
Pipobroman NCI 1966 not marketed discovery major
Hydroxyurea NCI 1967 Squibb discovery major
Cytarbine Upjohn 1969 Upjohn significant major
Procarbazine Roche 1969 Hoffman-LaRoche none major
Mithramycin NCI 1970 Pfizer discovery major
o,p - DDD NCI 1970 Bristol discovery major
Bleomycin IMC 1973 Bristol little major
Doxorubjcin Farmitalia 1974 Adria little major
Dacarbazine NCI 1975 Dohme discovery major
Lomustine NCI 1976 Bristol discovery major
Carmustine NCI 1977 Bristol discovery major
Cisplatin Mich St 1978 Bristol significant major
L-Asparaginase Cornell 1978 Merck significant major
Daunorubicin Farmitalia,
Rhone Poulenc
1979 Ives little major
Streptozotocin NCI 1982 Upjohn discovery major
VP-16 Sandoz 1983 Bristol little major
Leuoprolide Abbott 1985 Abbott little major
alpha-interferon England 1986 Roche little major
alpha-interferon England 1986 Schering little major
Mitoxatrone NCI 1987 Lederle discovery major
Ifosfamide Asta-Werke 1988 BMS little major
Carboplatin NCI 1989 BMS significant major
Flutamide Schering-Plough 1989 Schering-Plough none none
Zoladex ICI 1989 ICI none none
BCG . 1990 Connaught Organon Teknika none major
GM-CSF Immunex 1990 Immunex Hoechst Roussel none major
HMM American Cyanamid 1990 US Bioscience significant major
Idarubicin Farmatalia 1990 Adria Labs none none
Levamisole Janssen 1990 Janssen little major
Fludarabine Phosphate Southern Research Insitute
(NCI contractor)
1991 Berlex discovery major
G-CSF Amgen 1991 Amgen none major
Pentostatin Parke-Davis (NCI contractor) 1991 Parke-Davis significant major
VM-26 Sandoz 1992 BMS little major
IL-2 Cetus 1992 Chiron none major
Taxol NCI 1992 BMS discovery major

Sources: Bruce A. Chabner and Dale Shoemaker, "Drug Development for Cancer: Implications for Chemical Modifiers," International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics, April 1989, Volume 16, Number 4, pp. 907-909. Dr. Dale Shoemaker and Dr. Saul Schepartz, Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute. Taxpayer Assets Project. See also Federally Funded Pharmaceutical Inventions, Ralph Nader and James Love, Testimony before the Special Committee on the Aging of the United States Senate, February 24, 1993.

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