NCI Role in the Development of 37 Cancer Drugs

DRUG          DISCOVERY      DATE   MARKETING          NCI              NCI
              INSTITUTION    OF     COMPANY        PRECLINICAL        CLINICAL
                             NDA                       ROLE             ROLE
Vincristine       Lilly      1963    Lilly             none              major

Pipobroman        NCI        1966    not marketed      discovery         major

Hydroxyurea       NCI        1967    Squibb            discovery         major

Cytarbine         Upjohn     1969    Upjohn            significant       major

Procarbazine      Roche      1969    Hoffman-LaRoche   none              major

Mithramycin       NCI        1970    Pfizer            discovery         major

o,p - DDD         NCI        1970    Bristol           discovery         major

Bleomycin         IMC        1973    Bristol           little            major

Doxorubjcin       Farmitalia 1974    Adria             little            major

Dacarbazine       NCI        1975    Dohme             discovery         major

Lomustine         NCI        1976    Bristol           discovery         major

Carmustine        NCI        1977    Bristol           discovery         major

Cisplatin         Michigan   1978    Bristol           significant       major

L-Asparaginase    Cornell    1978    Merck             significant       major 

Daunorubicin      Farmitalia,1979   Ives              little            major
                  Rhone Poulenc

Streptozotocin    NCI        1982    Upjohn            discovery         major

VP-16             Sandoz     1983    Bristol           little            major

Leuoprolide       Abbott     1985    Abbott            little            major

alpha-interferon  England    1986    Roche             little            major

alpha-interferon  England    1986    Schering          little            major

Mitoxatrone       NCI        1987    Lederle           discovery         major

Ifosfamide        Asta-Werke 1988    Bristol-Myers     little            major

Carboplatin       NCI        1989    Bristol-Myers     significant       major

Flutamide         Schering-  1989    Schering-Plough   none              none

Zoladex           ICI        1989    ICI               none              none

BCG                          1990    Connaught Organon none              major

GM-CSF            Immunex    1990    Immunex Hoechst   none              major

HMM               American   1990    US Bioscience     significant       major

Idarubicin        Farmitalia 1990    Adria Labs.       none              none

Levamisole        Janssen    1990    Janssen           little            major

Fludarabine       Southern   1991    Berlex            discovery         major
  Phosphate       Research Institute
                  (NCI Contractor)

G-CSF             Amgen      1991    Amgen             none              major

Pentostatin       Parke-Davis 1991   Parke-Davis       significant       major
                  (NCI Contractor)

VM-26             Sandoz     1992    Bristol-Myers     little            major

IL-2              Cetus      1992    Chiron            none              major

Taxol             NCI        1992    Bristol-Myers     discovery         major

Sources: Bruce A. Chabner and Dale Shoemaker, "Drug Development for Cancer: Implications for Chemical Modifiers," International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics, April 1989, Volume 16, Number 4, pp. 907-909. Dr. Dale Shoemaker and Dr. Saul Schepartz, Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute. Taxpayer Assets Project.

See also Federally Funded Pharmaceutical Inventions, Ralph Nader and James Love, Testimony before the Special Committee on the Aging of the United States Senate, February 24, 1993